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China acaba com a política do filho único e permitirá 2 crianças por casal

Fonte / Autor: G1.GLOBO
Publicado em 29/10/2015

O Partido Comunista da China anunciou nesta quinta-feira (29) o fim da política do filho único, permitindo que agora cada casal tenha até dois filhos.

O anúncio foi feito na reunião anual do partido. Todos os casais do país poderão agora ter dois filhos, uma reforma que põe fim a mais de 30 anos da política que limitava os nascimentos no país.

Desde o fim de 2013 a China já adota medidas de relaxamento do controle de natalidade. Apesar das mudanças, pesquisas mostraram que o número de chines que quer ter o segundo filho ficou abaixo do esperado.

No início de 2015, o vice-diretor da comissão de planejamento familiar da província de Shanxi, afirmou que a China deveria abandonar a política do filho único. A declaração dele foi criticada pela imprensa estatal.

Contra superpopulação

A política do filho único entrou em vigor entre o fim de 1979 e 1980. O objetivo era de reduzir os problemas de superpopulação da China. Segundo especialistas, as medidas serviram para evitar que a população atual do país fosse de 1,7 bilhão de habitantes, contra os atuais 1,3 bilhão.

O governo chinês sempre defendeu que a restrição ao número de filhos, sobretudo em áreas urbanas, contribuiu para o desenvolvimento do país e para a saída da pobreza de mais de 400 milhões nas últimas três décadas. No entanto, também admitiu que estava chegando a hora de essa política ser encerrada.

O envelhecimento rápido da população está entre os efeitos secundários mais prejudiciais da política do filho único para a China. Em 2012, pela primeira vez em décadas, a população em idade ativa caiu. O índice de fecundação no país, de 1,5 filhos por mulher, é muito inferior ao nível que garante a renovação geracional.

Além disso, o país sofre com o descompasso entre o número de homens e mulheres.

Mudanças recentes

A mudança representa uma grande liberalização nas restrições de planejamento familiar do país, que foram aliviadas inicialmente em 2013, quando Pequim informou que iria permitir que milhões de famílias tivessem dois filhos.

Na época, o governo passou a permitir que casais em que pelo menos um dos pais era filho único poderiam ter dois filhos. Até então, a lei chinesa proibia que os casais tivessem mais de um filho.

A decisão de 2013 teve por ora um efeito limitado porque não se aplicava a todo o território e porque muitos casais preferem ter apenas um filho por razões econômicas.

Os rumores de que a política seria abandonada aumentaram recentemente. O primeiro-ministro da China, Li Keqiang, disse em março, em seu discurso anual na Assembleia Popular, que o governo seguiria fazendo mudanças no controle da natalidade.

Exceções à regra

A política do filho único tinha, além disso, algumas exceções: a quase totalidade das 55 minorias étnicas do país não tinham que obedecê-la e também os casais de zonas rurais podiam ignorá-la caso seu primeiro filho fosse uma menina.

De acordo com vários estudos, as famílias chinesas se acostumaram com a política do filho único e, com o tamanho reduzido dos apartamentos e o custo de vida em geral e dos estudos em particular, não têm muitos estímulos para desejar um segundo filho.